|Region||Great Britain and Ireland|
|Era||unknown, but significantly contributed to Middle English; used in English law until c. 14th century|
Anglo-Norman (Norman: Anglo-Normaund; French: anglo-normand), also known as Anglo-Norman French, was a dialect of Old Norman that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, other places in Great Britain and Ireland during the Anglo-Norman period.
According to some linguists, the name Insular French would be more suitable, because "Anglo-Norman" is constantly associated to the notion of a mixed language based on English and Norman. In fact, such a mixed language never existed.
When William the Conqueror led the Norman conquest of England in 1066, he, his nobles, and many of his followers from Normandy, but also those from northern and western France, spoke a range of langues d'oïl (northern varieties of Old French). This amalgam developed into the unique insular dialect now known as Anglo-Norman French, which was commonly used for literary and eventually administrative purposes from the 11th until the 14th century. It is difficult to know much about what was actually spoken, as what is known about the dialect is restricted to what was written, but it is clear that Anglo-Norman was, to a large extent, the spoken language of the higher social strata in medieval England.
It was spoken in the law courts, schools, and universities and, in due course, in at least some sections of the gentry and the growing bourgeoisie. Private and commercial correspondence was carried out in Anglo-Norman or Anglo-French from the 13th to the 15th century though its spelling forms were often displaced by continental spellings. Social classes other than the nobility became keen to learn French: manuscripts containing materials for instructing non-native speakers still exist, dating mostly from the late 14th century onwards.
Although Anglo-Norman and Anglo-French were eventually eclipsed by modern English, they had been used widely enough to influence English vocabulary permanently. Thus, many original Germanic words, cognates of which can still be found in Nordic, German, and Dutch, have been lost or, as more often occurs, exist alongside synonyms of Anglo-Norman French origin. Anglo-Norman had little lasting influence on English grammar, as opposed to vocabulary, although it is still evident in official and legal terms where the ordinary sequence of noun and adjective is reversed, as seen in phrases such as Blood Royal, attorney general, heir apparent, court martial, envoy extraordinary and body politic.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom still features in French the mottos of both the British Monarch, Dieu et mon droit ("God and my right"), and the Order of the Garter, Honi soit qui mal y pense ("Shamed be he who thinks evil of it").
Dieu et mon droit was first used by Richard I (who spoke Anglo-Norman but cannot be proven to have been able to speak English) in 1198 and adopted as the royal motto of England in the time of Henry VI. The motto appears below the shield of the Royal Coat of Arms.
Use and development
Though in regular use at the royal court, Anglo-French was not the main administrative language of England: Latin was the major language of record in legal and other official documents for most of the medieval period. However, from the late 12th century to the early 15th century, Anglo-French was much used in law reports, charters, ordinances, official correspondence, and trade at all levels; it was the language of the King, his court and the upper class. There is evidence, too, that foreign words (Latin, Greek, Italian, Arabic, Spanish) often entered English via Anglo-Norman.
The language of later documents adopted some of the changes ongoing in continental French and lost many of its original dialectal characteristics, so Anglo-French remained (in at least some respects and at least at some social levels) part of the dialect continuum of modern French, often with distinctive spellings. Over time, the use of Anglo-French expanded into the fields of law, administration, commerce, and science, in all of which a rich documentary legacy survives, indicative of the vitality and importance of the language.
By the late 15th century, however, what remained of insular French had become heavily anglicised: see Law French. It continued to be known as "Norman French" until the end of the 19th century even though, philologically, there was nothing Norman about it.
Among important writers of the Anglo-Norman cultural commonwealth is Marie de France.
The languages and literature of the Channel Islands are sometimes referred to as Anglo-Norman, but that usage is derived from the French name for the islands: les îles anglo-normandes. The variety of French spoken in the islands is related to the modern Norman language, and distinct from the Anglo-Norman of medieval England.
Trilingualism in Medieval England
Much of the earliest recorded documents of Old French are found in England. In medieval France, writing in the vernacular was uncommon due to Latin being the language of the Church and consequently of education and historiography, and was thus used for the purpose of records. Latin also remained in use in medieval England by the Church, the royal government and much local administration, as it had been before 1066, in parallel with Middle English. The early[when?] adoption of Anglo-Norman as a written and literary language probably owes something to this history of bilingualism in writing.
Around the same time, as a shift took place in France towards using French as a language of record in the mid-13th century, Anglo-Norman French also became a language of record in England though Latin retained its pre-eminence for matters of permanent record (as in written chronicles). From around this point onwards, considerable variation begins to be apparent in Anglo-French, which ranges from the very local (and most anglicized) to a level of language which approximates to and is sometimes indistinguishable from varieties of continental French. Thus, typically, local records are rather different from continental French, with diplomatic and international trade documents closest to the emerging continental norm. English remained the vernacular of the common people throughout this period. The resulting virtual trilinguism in spoken and written language was one of medieval Latin, French and Middle English.
Language of the king and his court
From the time of the Norman Conquest (1066) until the end of the 14th century, French was the language of the king and his court. During this period, marriages with French princesses reinforced the royal family's ties to French culture. Nevertheless, during the 13th century, intermarriages with English nobility became more frequent. French became progressively a second language among the upper classes. Moreover, with the Hundred Years' War and the growing spirit of English and French nationalism, the status of French diminished.
French (specifically Old French) was the mother tongue of every English king from William the Conqueror (1066–1087) until Henry IV (1399–1413). Henry IV was the first to take the oath in (Middle) English, and his son, Henry V (1413–1422), was the first to write in English. By the end of the 15th century, French became the second language of a cultivated elite.
Language of the royal charters and legislation
Until the end of the 13th century, Latin was the language of all official written documents. Nevertheless, some important documents had their official Norman translation, such as Magna Carta of 1215. The first official document written in Anglo-Norman was a statute promulgated by the king in 1275. Thus, from the 13th century, Anglo-Norman became used in official documents, such as those that were marked by the private seal of the king whereas the documents sealed by the Lord Chancellor were written in Latin until the end of the Middle Ages. English became the language of Parliament and of legislation in the 15th century, half a century after it had become the language of the king and most of the English nobility.
Language of administration and justice
During the 11th century, development of the administrative and judicial institutions took place. Because the king and the lawyers at the time normally used French, it also became the language of these institutions. From the 11th century until the 14th century, the courts used three languages: Latin for writing, French as the main oral language during trials, and English in less formal exchanges between the judge, the lawyer, the complainant or the witnesses. The judge gave his sentence orally in Norman, which was then written in Latin. Only in the lowest level of the manorial courts were trials entirely in English.
During the late 14th century, English became the main spoken language, but Latin and French continued to be exclusively used in official legal documents until the beginning of the 18th century. Nevertheless, the French language used in England changed from the end of the 15th century into Law French, that was used since the 13th century. This variety of French was a technical language, with a specific vocabulary, where English words were used to describe everyday experience, and French grammatical rules and morphology gradually declined, with confusion of genders and the adding of -s to form all plurals. Law French was banished from the courts of the common law in 1731, almost three centuries after the king ceased speaking primarily French. French was used on moots in the Inner Temple until 1779.
Anglo-Norman has survived in the political system in the use of certain Anglo-French set phrases in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, where they are written by hand on bills by the Clerk of the Parliaments or Clerk of the House of Commons to endorse them during their progress to becoming law, or spoken aloud by the Clerk of the Parliaments during a gathering of the Lords Commissioners, to indicate the granting of Royal Assent to legislation.
|Event||Anglo-Norman phrase||English translation|
|House of Lords bill sent to House of Commons||Soit baillé aux Communes.||Let it be sent to the Commons.|
|Lords bill agreed to by Commons without amendment||A ceste Bille les Communes sont assentus.||To this bill the Commons have assented.|
|Lords bill agreed to by Commons with amendments||A ceste Bille avecque des Amendemens (or avecque une Amendement) les Communes sont assentus.||To this bill with [an] amendment[s] the Commons have assented.|
|Commons amendments to Lords bill agreed to with amendments||A ceste Amendement (or ces Amendemens) avecque une Amendement (or des Amendemens) les Seigneurs sont assentus.||To [this/these] amendment[s] the Lords have assented.|
|Disagreement with the Commons||Ceste Bille est remise aux Communes avecque des Raisons (or une Raison).||This bill is returned to the Commons with [a] reason[s].|
|Commons bill sent to Lords||Soit baillé aux Seigneurs.||Let it be sent to the Lords.|
|Commons bill returned with amendments||A ceste Bille avecque des Amendemens (or une Amendement) les Seigneurs sont assentus.||To this bill with [an] amendment[s] the Lords have assented.|
|Supply bill returned to Commons agreed pending Royal Assent by Commission||A ceste Bille les Seigneurs sont assentus.||To this bill the Lords have assented.|
|Royal Assent is given for a public bill||Le Roy/La Reyne le veult.||The King/Queen wills it.|
|Royal Assent is given for a supply bill||Le Roy/La Reyne remercie ses bons sujets, accepte leur benevolence et ainsi le veult.||The King/Queen thanks his/her good subjects, accepts their bounty, and wills it so.|
|Royal Assent is given for a private bill||Soit fait comme il est désiré.||Let it be done as it is desired.|
|Royal Assent is withheld||Le Roy/La Reyne s'avisera.||The King/Queen will consider it.|
The exact spelling of these phrases has varied over the years; for example, s'avisera has been spelled as s'uvisera and s'advisera, and Reyne as Raine.
Language of the people
Though the great mass of ordinary people spoke forms of English, French spread as a second language due to its prestige, encouraged by its long-standing use in the school system as a medium of instruction through which Latin was taught. In the courts, the members of the jury, who represented the population, had to know French in order to understand the plea of the lawyer. French was used by the merchant middle class as a language of business communication, especially when it traded with the continent, and several churches used French to communicate with lay people. A small but important number of documents survive associated with the Jews of medieval England, some featuring Anglo-French written in Hebrew script, typically in the form of glosses to the Hebrew scriptures.
As a langue d'oïl, Anglo-Norman developed collaterally to the central Old French dialects which would eventually become Parisian French in terms of grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. Before the signature of the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts in 1539, French was not standardised as an administrative language throughout the kingdom of France.
Middle English was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman and, later, Anglo-French. W. Rothwell has called Anglo-French 'the missing link' because many etymological dictionaries seem to ignore the contribution of that language in English and because Anglo-Norman and Anglo-French can explain the transmission of words from French into English and fill the void left by the absence of documentary records of English (in the main) between 1066 and c. 1380.
Modern French has changed dramatically compared to the Anglo-Norman period. For example, Anglo-Norman legal documents use the phrase "del Rey", or "del Roy" (of the king). This is identical to modern Spanish but different from the modern French "du Roi".
Anglo-Norman morphology and phonology can be deduced from its heritage in English. Mostly, it is done in comparison with continental Central French. English has many doublets as a result of this contrast:
- warranty – guarantee
- warden – guardian
- catch – chase (see below)
- wage (Anglo-Norman) – gage (French)
- wait – guetter (French, Old French guaitier)
- war (from Anglo-Norman werre) – guerre (French)
- wicket (Anglo-Norman) – guichet (French, from Norman)
The palatalization of velar consonants before the front vowel produced different results in Norman to the central langue d'oïl dialects that developed into French. English therefore, for example, has fashion from Norman féchoun as opposed to Modern French façon (both developing from Latin factio, factiōnem). In contrast, the palatalization of velar consonants before /a/ that affected the development of French did not occur in Norman dialects north of the Joret line. English has therefore inherited words that retain a velar plosive where French has a fricative:
|English||< Norman||= French|
|cabbage||< caboche||= chou, caboche|
|castle||< caste(-l)||= château|
|cauldron||< caudron||= chaudron|
|causeway||< cauchie||= chaussée|
|catch||< cachi||= chasser|
|cattle||< *cate(-l)||= cheptel (Old French chetel)|
|fork||< fouorque||= fourche|
|garden||< gardin||= jardin|
|kennel||< kenil||= chenil (Vulgar Latin *canile)|
|wicket||< viquet||= guichet|
|plank||< planque||= planche, planque|
|< pouquette||= poche|
Some loans were palatalized later in English, as in the case of challenge (< Old Norman calonge, Middle English kalange, kalenge, later chalange; Old French challenge, chalonge).
There were also vowel differences: Compare Anglo-Norman profound with Parisian French profond, soun sound with son, round with rond. The former words were originally pronounced something like 'profoond', 'soon', 'roond' respectively (compare the similarly denasalised vowels of modern Norman), but later developed their modern pronunciation in English. The word veil retains the /ei/ (as does modern Norman in vaile and laîsi) that in French has been replaced by /wa/ voile, loisir.
Since many words established in Anglo-Norman from French via the intermediary of Norman were not subject to the processes of sound change that continued in parts of the continent, English sometimes preserves earlier pronunciations. For example, ch used to be /tʃ/ in Medieval French, where Modern French has /ʃ/, but English has preserved the older sound (in words like chamber, chain, chase and exchequer). Similarly, j had an older /dʒ/ sound, which it still has in English and some dialects of modern Norman, but it has developed into /ʒ/ in Modern French.
The word mushroom preserves a hush sibilant not recorded in French mousseron, as does cushion for coussin. Conversely, the pronunciation of the word sugar resembles Norman chucre even if the spelling is closer to French sucre. It is possible that the original sound was an apical sibilant, like the Basque s, which is halfway between a hissing sibilant and a hushing sibilant.
Distinctions in meaning between Anglo-Norman and French have led to many faux amis (words having similar form but different meanings) in Modern English and Modern French.
Although it is a Romance language, Norman contains a significant amount of lexical material from Old Norse. Because of this, some of the words introduced to England as part of Anglo-Norman were of Germanic origin. Indeed, sometimes one can identify cognates such as flock (Germanic in English existing prior to the Conquest) and floquet (Germanic in Norman). The case of the word mug demonstrates that in instances, Anglo-Norman may have reinforced certain Scandinavian elements already present in English. Mug had been introduced into northern English dialects by Viking settlement. The same word had been established in Normandy by the Normans (Norsemen) and was then brought over after the Conquest and established firstly in southern English dialects. It is, therefore, argued that the word mug in English shows some of the complicated Germanic heritage of Anglo-Norman.
Many expressions used in English today have their origin in Anglo-Norman (such as the expression before-hand, which derives from Anglo-Norman avaunt-main), as do many modern words with interesting etymologies. Mortgage, for example, literally meant death-wage in Anglo-Norman. Curfew (fr. couvre-feu) meant cover-fire, referring to the time in the evening when all fires had to be covered to prevent the spread of fire within communities with timber buildings. The word glamour is derived from Anglo-Norman grammeire, the same word which gives us modern grammar; glamour meant first "book learning" and then the most glamorous form of book learning, "magic" or "magic spell" in Medieval times.
The influence of Anglo-Norman was very asymmetric: very little influence from English was carried over into the continental possessions of the Anglo-Norman kings. Some administrative terms survived in some parts of mainland Normandy: forlenc (from furrow, compare furlong) in the Cotentin Peninsula and Bessin, and a general use of the word acre (instead of French arpent) for land measurement in Normandy until metrication in the 19th century, but these words are probably linguistic traces of Saxon or Anglo-Scandinavian settlements between the 4th and the 10th centuries in Normandy. Otherwise the direct influence of English in mainland Norman (such as smogler "to smuggle") is from direct contact with English in later centuries, rather than Anglo-Norman.
When the Normans invaded England, Anglo-Saxon literature had reached a very high level of development. The important Benedictine monasteries both wrote chronicles and guarded other works in Old English. However, with the arrival of the Norman, Anglo-Saxon literature came to an end and literature written in Britain was in Latin or Anglo-Norman. The Plantagenet kings encouraged this Anglo-Norman literature. Nevertheless, from the beginning of the 14th century, some authors chose to write in English, such as Geoffrey Chaucer. The authors of that period were influenced by the works of contemporary French writers whose language was prestigious. Chaucer is considered to be the father of the English language and the creator of English as a literary language.
Influence on English
The major Norman-French influence on English can still be seen in today's vocabulary. An enormous number of Norman-French and other medieval French loanwords came into the language, and about three-quarters of them are still used today. Very often, the Norman or French word supplanted the Anglo-Saxon term, or both words would co-exist but with slightly different nuances: for example, cow (describing the animal) and beef (describing the meat). In other cases, the Norman or French word was adopted to signify a new reality, such as judge, castle, warranty.
In general, the Norman and French borrowings concerned the fields of culture, aristocratic life, politics and religion, and war whereas the English words were used to describe everyday experience. When the Normans arrived in England, their copyists wrote English as they heard it, without realising the peculiarities of the relationship between Anglo-Saxon pronunciation and spelling and so the spelling changed. There appeared different regional Modern-English written dialects, the one that the king chose in the 15th century becoming the standard variety.
In some remote areas, agricultural terms used by the rural workers may have been derived from Norman French. An example is the Cumbrian term sturdy for diseased sheep that walk in circles, derived from étourdi meaning dizzy.
Influence in Ireland
The Norman invasion of Ireland began in 1169, on the first of May in Bannow Bay, and led to Anglo-Norman control of much of the island. Norman-speaking administrators arrived to rule over the Angevin Empire's new territory. Several Norman words became Gaelic words, including household terms: garsún (from Norman garçun, "boy"); cóta (cote, "cloak"); hata (hatte, "hat"); gairdín (gardin, "garden"); and terms relating to justice (Irish giúistís, bardas (corporation), cúirt (court)).
Place-names in Norman are few, but there is Buttevant (from the motto of the Barry family: Boutez en avant, "Push to the Fore"), the village of Brittas (from the Norman bretesche, "boarding, planking") and the element Pallas (Irish pailís, from Norman paleis, "boundary fence": compare palisade, The Pale). Others exist with English or Irish roots, such as Castletownroche, which combines the English Castletown and the Norman Roche, meaning rock.
- Anglo-Norman literature
- Anglo-Norman Text Society
- Influence of French on English
- Law French
- Middle English creole hypothesis
- Blazon § French vocabulary and grammar
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (2022-05-24). "Glottolog 4.8 - Oil". Glottolog. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Archived from the original on 2023-11-11. Retrieved 2023-11-11.
- For a wide-ranging introduction to the language and its uses, see Anglo-French and the AND by William Rothwell
- Ian Short, A Companion to the Anglo-Norman World, "Language and Literature", Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2007. (p. 193)
- Geneviève Hasenohr, Le Jeu d'Adam, édition critique et traduction, Genève, Droz, 2017
- Amended version of: Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
- Pollock and Maitland, p. 87 note 3.
- See Lusignan, 2005; Trotter, 2009.
- Lusignan, Serge. La langue des rois au Moyen Âge : Le français en France et en Angleterre. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004.
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- Stephens, Charles (2009-10-02). A Study in Legal History Volume II; The Last of England: Lord Denning's Englishry and the Law. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-1560-4.
- "Appendix F: Royal Assent by Commission". Companion to the Standing Orders and guide to the Proceedings of the House of Lords. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
- "Appendix H: Endorsements to Bills". Companion to the Standing Orders and guide to the Proceedings of the House of Lords. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
- Bennion, Francis (1 October 1981). "Modern Royal Assent Procedure at Westminster" (Microsoft Word 97-2003 document). Statute Law Review. 2 (3): 133–147. doi:10.1093/slr/2.3.133. Archived from the original on 16 March 2007.
- Fuderman[full citation needed]
- Rothwell, W. (1991), "The missing link in English etymology: Anglo-French", Medium Aevum, 60, 173–96.
- "Cotton MS Vitellius A XIII/1". Les roys de Engeltere. 1280–1300. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
Five rectangles of red linen, formerly used as curtains for the miniatures.ff. 3–6: Eight miniatures of the kings of England from Edward the Confessor (r. 1042–1066) to Edward I (r. 1272–1307); each one except the last is accompanied by a short account of their reign in Anglo-Norman prose. "del Roy Phylippe de Fraunce"
- Bhatia, K. L. (2010). Textbook on Legal Language and Legal Writing. Universal Law Publishers. p. 260. ISBN 978-8175348943.
- Bailey's Dictionary, fifth edition, 1731.
- Rollinson, William (1987). Life and Tradition in the Lake District. Dalesman. p. 82. ISBN 0852068859.
- 'Pallas' | Logainm.ie
- "Medieval and early modern French Texts at CELT". ucc.ie.
- British Library, Cotton MS Vitellius A XIII/1  "Les roys de Engeltere" (Five rectangles of red linen, formerly used as curtains for the miniatures.ff. 3–6: Eight miniatures of the kings of England from Edward the Confessor (r. 1042–1066) to Edward I (r. 1272–1307); each one except the last is accompanied by a short account of their reign in Anglo-Norman prose." "Roy Phylippe de Fraunce" "en englerere: le Roy Jon regna."), (1272–1307).
- De Wilde, Geert et al. (eds.), "Anglo-Norman Dictionary" (= AND), on line.
- Kelham, Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779) (very outdated)
- Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2nd edition: Cambridge 1898, pp. 80–87.
This 'further reading' section may need cleanup. (May 2023)
- Anglo-Norman Dictionary, online version: http://www.anglo-norman.net. A–S, U, W, Y and Z second edition (2005–); T, V and X reproduce the first (printed edition). The site also provides a searchable textbase of more than 70 Anglo-Norman texts, selected publications by the editorial team, a general introduction to Anglo-Norman and a bibliography off all Anglo-Norman primary sources.
- Brand, Paul (1999), 'The languages of the law in later medieval England'. In Trotter (2000a).
- Brand, Paul. 2010. 'The Language of the English Legal Profession: The Emergence of a Distinctive Legal Lexicon in Insular French'. In Ingham (2010), 94–101.
- Brun, Laurent (2004), c.r. de Ruelle (1999), ZrP 120, 190–194.
- Burgess, Glyn S. (1995), 'Französische Skriptaformen IV. England. Les scriptae françaises IV. Angleterre'. In Holtus, Günter/Metzeltin, Michael/Schmidt, Christian (eds.), Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik II, 2. Tübingen, 337–346.
- Butterfield, Ardis. 2009. The Familiar Enemy. Chaucer, Language and Nation in the Hundred Years' War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Cerquiglini, Bernard (1991), La naissance du français, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Cerquiglini, Bernard (2007), Une langue orpheline, Paris: Éditions de Minuit.
- Chaplais, Pierre. 1975–1982. English Medieval Diplomatic Practice. London: H.M.S.O.
- Clanchy, M.T. (1993), From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307. 2nd edn. Oxford.
- Collas, J.P. (1964) (ed.), Year Books of Edward II, vol. xxv, London, 'Problems of Language and Interpretation', 14–127.
- Da Rold, Orietta. 2006. "English Manuscripts 1060 to 1220 and the Making of a Resource." In Literature Compass 3, 750–766, en ligne: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/: (DOI:10.1111/j.1741-4113.2006.00344.x), consulté le 14 mai 2013.
- De Jong, Thera (1988), 'L'anglo normand du 13e siècle', in Van Reenen, P. & Van Reenen Stein, K. (eds.), Distributions spatiales et temporelles, constellations des manuscrits. Etudes de variation linguistique offertes à Anthonij Dees à l'occasion de son 60ème anniversaire, Amsterdam, 103 12.
- De Jong, Thera (1996), 'Anglo-French in the 13th and 14th Centuries: Continental or Insular Dialect', in Nielsen/Schǿsler (1996), 55–70.
- Dean, Ruth J.. 1999. Anglo-Norman literature. A guide to texts and manuscripts, with the collaboration of Maureen B.M. Boulton. London: Anglo-Norman Text Society.
- Dees, Anthonij (1980), Atlas des formes et des constructions des chartes françaises du 13e siècle (Beihefte zur ZrP, vol. 178), Tübingen, Niemeyer.
- Dees, Anthonij (1985), Dialectes et scriptae à l'époque de l'ancien français, RLiR 49, 87–117.
- Dees, Anthonij (1987), Atlas des formes linguistiques des textes littéraires de l'ancien français (Beihefte zur ZrP, vol. 212), Tübingen, Niemeyer.
- Dessì Schmid, Sarah/Hafner, Jochen/Heinemann, Sabine (2011) (edd.), Koineisierung und Standardisierung in der Romania, Heidelberg, Winter.
- DMLBS = Latham, Ronald e., David Howlettt, and Richard Ashdowne, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources. Oxford: British Academy. (1975–).
- Dodd, Gwilym. 2007. Justice and Grace: Private Petitioning and the English Parliament in the Late Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Durkin, Philip. 2012. "Etymological research on English words as a source of information about Anglo-French." In Present and future research in Anglo-Norman: Proceedings of the Aberystwyth Colloquium, 21–22 July 2011, ed. David Trotter, 101–107. Aberystwyth: Anglo-Norman Online Hub.
- Duval, Frédéric (2009), Le français médiéval (L'Atelier du médiéviste, 11), Turnhout, Brepols.
- Georgo, David. 2008. Language Made Visible: The Invention of French in England after the Norman Conquest. PhD diss., New York State University, UMI No. 3307998.
- Gervers, Michael/ Merrilees, Brian (1979), A twelfth-century Hospitaller charter in Anglo-Norman, Journal of the Society of Archivists 6, 131–35.
- Glessgen, Martin-Dietrich (2012), Trajectoires et perspectives en scriptologie romane, Medioevo Romanzo 36, 5–23.
- Goebl, Hans (1970), Die normandische Urkundensprache. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der nordfranzösischen Urkundensprachen des Mittelalter (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist.Klasse, 269), Vienne, Bohlau.
- Goebl, Hans (1998), Zu einer dialektometrischen Analyse der Daten des Dees-Atlasses von 1980, in: Werner, Edeltraudet al. (edd.), Et multum et multa. Festschrift für Peter Wunderli zum 60. Geburtstag, Tübingen, Narr, 293–309.
- Goebl, Hans (2008), Sur le changement macrolinguistique survenu entre 1300 et 1900 dans le domaine d'oïl. Une étude diachronique d'inspiration dialectométrique, Dialectologia 1, 3–43 [disponible en ligneà l'addresse suivante:  (consulté le 02.02.14)]
- Gossen, Charles Théodore (1968a), Graphème et phonème: le problème central de l'étude des langues écrites au Moyen Age, RLiR 32, 1–16.
- Gossen, Charles Théodore (1968b), L'interprétation des graphèmes et la phonétique historique de la langue française, TraLiLi 6/i (1968), 149–168.
- Gossen, Charles Théodore (1979), Méditations scriptologiques, CCM 22, 263–283.
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